It must be remembered this research only used a very small sample of 15 people with CFS from the US, who may not be representative of the many thousands of people affected by this condition in the UK or elsewhere.
For example, these were people who had severe and persisting memory or concentration problems, such that their doctor thought brain imaging was required to make sure no other disease process was going on. The differences seen between these 15 people with CFS and 14 without may not be identical to differences that may be seen in a different sample.
Also, as this is a cross-sectional study, it cannot prove cause and effect: it can't tell us the order in which events happened. For example, it can't tell us whether these are structural features that occurred before people developed CFS, which may have been involved in the development of the condition, or whether these are changes that happened after the people developed CFS.
Further imagining studies in larger samples of people with this condition may reveal whether these results are consistent observations in the brain structure of people with CFS. The next step would then be to try to understand how these differences are associated with the condition's development.
These findings have no immediate treatment or preventative implications for CFS.